Atomyada, Molecules, iyo Iions OpenStaxCollege [latexpage]

Ujeedooyinka Barashada

Dhamaadka cutubkan, waxaad awoodi doontaa inaad:

  • U soo saar magacyo noocyada caadiga ah ee isku-dhafka aan noolaha ahayn adigoo isticmaalaya hab habaysan

Nomenclature, oo ah ururinta xeerar magac-bixineed, ayaa muhiim u ah sayniska iyo xaalado kale oo badan. Qaybtani waxa ay qeexaysaa hab loo isticmaalo in lagu magacaabo ionic-ka fudud iyo isku xidhka molecular, sida NaCl, CaCO 3 , iyo N 2 O 4. Kuwa ugu fudud kuwan waa xeryahooda binary, kuwaas oo ka kooban laba walxood oo keliya, laakiin waxaan sidoo kale tixgelin doonaa sida loo magacaabo xeryahooda ionic oo ay ku jiraan polyatomic ions, iyo hal gaar ah, oo aad muhiim u ah xeryahooda loo yaqaan acids (cutubyada soo socda ee qoraalkan ayaa diiradda saari doona kuwan. xeryahooda si faahfaahsan). Waxaan halkan ku xaddidi doonaa dareenkayaga xeryahooda aan noolaha ahayn, xeryahooda ay ka kooban yihiin asal ahaan walxo aan kaarboon ahayn, waxaana raaci doona tilmaamaha magac-u-yaalka ee ay soo jeedisay IUPAC. Xeerarka xeryahooda organic, kaas oo kaarboonku yahay curiyaha mabda’a, waxaa lagu daweyn doonaa cutubka dambe ee kimistariga dabiiciga ah.

Isku-dhafka Ionic

Si aan u magacowno iskudarka aan organic ahayn, waxaan u baahanahay inaan tixgelinno jawaabaha su’aalo dhowr ah. Marka hore, iskudhisku ma ionicbaa mise molecular? Haddii xaruntu ay tahay ionic, birta ma samaysaa ions oo ah hal nooc oo kaliya (lacag go’an) ama in ka badan hal nooc (lacag kala duwan)? ion-yadu ma monotomic mise polyatomic? Haddii xaruntu tahay molecular, ma ka kooban tahay hydrogen? Hadday sidaas tahay, sidoo kale miyay ku jirtaa ogsijiin? Jawaabaha aan ka soo qaadano, waxaan dhignaa xarunta qayb ku haboon ka dibna u magacownaa si waafaqsan.

Isku-dhafan oo ay ku jiraan Iions Monatomic Keliya

Magaca isku-xidhka binary ee ka kooban ion monatomic wuxuu ka kooban yahay magaca cation (magaca birta) oo ay ku xigto magaca anion (magaca curiyaha nonmetallic oo dhamaadka lagu beddelay daba-galka – ide ). Tusaalooyinka qaar ayaa lagu bixiyay [link].

Magacyada Qaybaha Ionic Qaarkood
NaCl, sodium chloride Na 2 O, sodium oxide
KBr, bromide potassium CdS, cadmium sulfide
CaI 2 , calcium iodide Mg 3 N 2 , magnesium nitride
CsF, cesium fluoride Ca 3 P2 , calcium fosfide
LiCl, lithium chloride Al 4 C 3 , aluminium carbide

Iskudhafyo Ka kooban Iions Polyatomic

Isku-dhafka ay ku jiraan ion polyatomic waxaa lagu magacaabaa si la mid ah kuwa ay ku jiraan kaliya ion monatomic, marka laga reebo ma jirto baahi loo qabo in loo beddelo – IDE -dhamaadka, mar haddii daba-galku uu horay ugu jiro magaca anion. Tusaalooyinka waxaa lagu muujiyey [link].

Magacyada Qaar ka mid ah Isku-dhafka Ionic Polyatomic
KC 2 H 3 O 2 , potassium acetate (NH 4 )Cl, ammonium chloride
NaHCO 3 , sodium bicarbonate CaSO 4 , calcium sulfate
Al 2 (CO 3 ) 3 , aluminium kaarboonayt Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , magnesium phosphate

Isku-dhafka Ionic ee Golihiisa Wasiirada Maalin kasta waxaad la kulantaa oo aad isticmaashaa tiro badan oo xeryahooda ionic ah. Qaar ka mid ah xeryahooda, meelaha laga helo, iyo waxa loo isticmaalo waxay ku taxan yihiin [link]. Fiiri calaamadda ama liiska maaddooyinka ku jira alaabooyinka kala duwan ee aad isticmaashid dhawrka maalmood ee soo socda, oo arag haddii aad dhex gasho mid ka mid ah kuwa shaxdan ku jira, ama hel xeryo kale oo ionic ah oo aad hadda magacaabi karto ama u qori karto qaacido ahaan.

Maalin kasta Ionic Compounds
Isku-dhafka Ionic Isticmaal
NaCl, sodium chloride cusbo miiska caadiga ah
KI, potassium iodide lagu daray cusbo “iodized” oo loogu talagalay caafimaadka tayroodh
NaF, sodium fluoride maaddada daawada cadayga
NaHCO 3 , sodium bicarbonate Fixiso; loo isticmaalo karinta (iyo sida antacid)
Na 2 CO 3 , sodium carbonate soodhaha dhaqa; loo isticmaalo walxaha nadiifinta
NaOCl, sodium hypochlorite walaxda firfircoon ee biliijka guriga
CaCO 3 calcium carbonate maadada antacids-ka
Mg(OH) 2 , magnesium hydroxide maadada antacids-ka
Al(OH) 3 , aluminium hydroxide maadada antacids-ka
NaOH, sodium hydroxide lye; loo isticmaalo nadiifiyaha bullaacadaha
K 3 PO 4 , fosfooraska potassium cuntada lagu daro (ujeedooyin badan)
MgSO 4 , magnesium sulfate lagu daray biyo sifaysan
Na 2 HPO 4 , sodium hydrogen phosphate wakiilka-caking; loo isticmaalo alaabta budada ah
Na 2 SO 3 , sodium sulfite ilaaliye

Isku-dhafan oo ay ku jiraan Ion Bir ah oo leh Kharash kala duwan

Inta badan biraha kala-guurka waxay samayn karaan laba ama in ka badan oo cations oo leh kharashyo kala duwan. Isku-dhafka birahan ee aan birta ahayn waxaa lagu magacaabaa qaab isku mid ah sida xeryahooda qaybta koowaad, marka laga reebo kharashka ion birta waxaa lagu qeexay nambarka Roomaanka ee jaantuska ka dib magaca birta. Kharashka ion birta waxaa lagu go’aamiyaa qaabka dhismaha iyo kharashka anion. Tusaale ahaan, tixgeli xeryahooda ionic binary ee birta iyo koloriinta. Birtu waxay caadi ahaan soo bandhigtaa kharash 2+ ama 3+ ah (fiiri [link]), iyo labada qaacido ee isku midka ah waa FeCl 2 iyo FeCl 3 . Magaca ugu fudud, “kloriinta birta,” ayaa, kiiskan, noqon doona mid mugdi ah, maadaama aysan kala saarin labadan qaybood. Kiisaska sidan oo kale ah, kharashka ion birta waxaa lagu daraa sida nambarada Roomaanka ee khaanadaha isla markiiba raacaya magaca birta. Labadan xeryood ayaa markaa si aan mugdi lahayn loogu magacaabay birta (II) chloride iyo iron(III) chloride, siday u kala horreeyaan. Tusaalooyinka kale ayaa lagu bixiyay [link].

Magacyada Qaybaha Kala-guurka ee Metal Ionic Compounds
Kala-guurka Birta Ionic Compound Magaca
FeCl 3 birta (III) chloride
Hg 2 O meerkuri (I) oxide
HgO meerkuri (II) oxide
Cu 3 (PO 4 ) 2 naxaas (II) phosphate

Magacaabistii hore waxay isticmaashay daba-galayaasha – ic iyo – ous si ay u qoondeeyaan biraha leh kharashyo sare iyo kuwo hoose, siday u kala horreeyaan: Iron(III) chloride, FeCl 3 , waxa hore loo odhan jiray ferric chloride, iyo iron (II) chloride, FeCl 2 , waxa loo yiqiin chloride ferrous. In kasta oo heshiiskan magac-bixintu ay si weyn uga tageen bulshada cilmi-nafsiyeedka, haddana waxa weli isticmaalaya qaybo ka mid ah warshadaha. Tusaale ahaan, waxa laga yaabaa inaad ku aragto tubbada daawada cadayga erayada stannous fluoride . Tani waxay ka dhigan tahay qaacidada SnF 2 , oo si habboon loogu magacaabay tin(II) fluoride. Flooraydhka kale ee tiin waa SnF 4 , kaas oo markii hore loo yaqaanay stannic fluoride laakiin hadda loo yaqaan tin (IV) fluoride. Magacaabidda Isku-dhafka Ionic
Waxaad u sheegtaa isku-dhisyada ionic ee soo socda, kuwaas oo ka kooban bir yeelan karta in ka badan hal kharash oo ionic ah: (a) Fe 2 S 3 (b) Cuse (c) GAN (d) CrCl 3 (e) Ti 2 (SO 4 ) 3 xal _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , \) iyo xeryahooda waa inay ahaadaan dhexdhexaad. Sababtoo ah wadarta kharashka togan ee xarun kasta waa inay la mid tahay wadarta guud ee eedaha taban, ions togan waa inay ahaadaan Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ , Ga 3+ , Cr 3+ , iyo Ti 3+ . Kharashyadan waxaa loo isticmaalaa magacyada birta ions: (a) Bir (III) sulfide (b) naxaas (II) selenide (c) gallium(III) nitride (d) chromium (III) chloride (e) titanium (III) sulfate Hubi Waxbarashadaada
Qor qaababka isku-dhafka ionic ee soo socda: (a) chromium (III) fosfide (b) meerkuri (II) sulfide (c) manganese(II) phosphate (d) naxaas (I) oksaydh (e) chromium (VI) fluoride Jawaab: (a) CrP; (b) HgS; (c) Mn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ; (d) Cu 2 O; (e) CrF 6 Erin Brokovich iyo Chromium wasakhaysan Horraantii 1990-aadkii, karraaniga galka sharciga Erin Brockovich ([link]) ayaa ka helay heerar sare oo cudurro halis ah magaalada yar ee Hinckley, California. Baadhitaankeedu wuxuu ugu dambeyntii la xiriiriyay jirrooyinka biyaha dhulka ee wasakhaysan ee Cr (VI) ee loo isticmaalo Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) si ay ula dagaallamaan daxalka dhuumaha gaaska dabiiciga ah ee u dhow. Sida lagu soo bandhigay filimka Erin Brokovich (oo Julia Roberts ay ku guuleysatay Oscar), Erin iyo qareen Edward Masry ayaa dacweeyay PG&E inay wasakheeyeen biyaha u dhow Hinckley 1993. Dejinta ay ku guuleysteen 1996 – 333 milyan – waxay ahayd lacagta ugu badan ee abid la bixiyo. dacwad ficil toos ah oo ka dhacday Maraykanka wakhtigaas. (a) Erin Brockovich wuxuu ogaaday in Cr (VI), oo ay adeegsato PG&E, ay wasakhaysay biyaha Hinckley, California. (b) Cr(VI) ion inta badan waxa uu ku dhex jiraa biyaha sida chromate-ka polyatomic ions, \({\text{CrO}}_{4}{}^{2-}\) (bidix), iyo dichromate, \ ({\text{Cr}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{7}{}^{2-} \) (midig). Jaantuska A wuxuu muujinayaa sawirka Erin Brockovich. Jaantuska B waxa uu tusinayaa qaabka 3-D kubad-iyo-usha ee chromate. Chromate waxa uu xaruntiisa ku leeyahay atom chromium kaas oo sameeya xidhidhyo leh afar atamka oksijiin midkiiba. Laba ka mid ah atamka oksijiinta waxay sameeyaan hal xidhmo oo leh atomka chromium halka labada kale ay sameeyaan bonds labanlaab ah midkiiba. Qaab dhismeedka dichromate wuxuu ka kooban yahay laba ion oo chromate ah oo isku xidhan oo wadaaga mid ka mid ah atamka oksijiinta kaas oo atom kasta oo chromate uu leeyahay hal bond. Iskudhisyada Chromium ayaa si weyn loogu isticmaalaa warshadaha, sida dahaadhida chrome, samaynta dheeha, sida ilaalinta, iyo si looga hortago daxalka ee qaboojinta biyaha munaaradda, sida ka dhacay agagaarka Hinckley. Deegaanka dhexdiisa, chromium wuxuu ugu horrayn ka jiraa qaababka Cr(III) ama Cr(VI). Cr(III), oo ah qayb ka kooban fiitamiino iyo nafaqo badan oo dheeri ah, waxay samaysaa iskudhisyo aan aad ugu milmin biyaha, waxayna leedahay suntan hoose. Laakiin Cr (VI) aad ayuu uga sun badan yahay wuxuuna samaysaa isku-dhisyo si macquul ah ugu milmay biyaha. Soo-gaadhista xaddi yar oo Cr (VI) ah waxay u horseedi kartaa dhaawac xagga neef-mareenka, caloosha iyo mindhicirka, iyo habdhiska difaaca, iyo sidoo kale kelyaha, beerka, dhiigga, iyo maqaarka. Inkasta oo ay jiraan dadaallo nadiifin ah, wasakheynta biyaha dhulka hoostiisa ee Cr(VI) ayaa weli ah dhibaato Hinckley iyo meelaha kale ee adduunka oo dhan. Daraasad 2010 ah oo ay sameeyeen Kooxda Shaqada Deegaanka ayaa lagu ogaaday in 35 ka mid ah magaalooyinka Mareykanka ee la tijaabiyay, 31 ay leeyihiin heerar ka sarreeya Cr (VI) biyaha qasabadaha marka loo eego yoolka caafimaadka dadweynaha ee 0.02 qaybood halkii bilyan oo ay dejisay Hay’adda Ilaalinta Deegaanka ee California.

Unugyada molecular (Covalent)

Sifooyinka isku xidhka ee xeryahooda molecular waa ka duwan yihiin xeryahooda ionic, waxaana lagu magacaabay hab ka duwan sidoo kale. Kharashyada cations iyo anions waxay tilmaamayaan saamigooda isku dhafka ionic, marka qeexida magacyada ion-yada waxay bixisaa macluumaad ku filan si loo go’aamiyo hababka kiimikada. Si kastaba ha ahaatee, sababtoo ah isku xidhka covalent waxay u ogolaaneysaa kala duwanaansho weyn oo ah saamiga isku dhafka atamka ee ku jira molecule, magacyada xeryahooda molecular waa inay si cad u cadeeyaan saamigaan.

Isku-dhafan oo ka kooban laba walxood

Marka laba walxood oo aan biraha ahayn ay sameeyaan iskudhis molecular, dhawr saami oo isku dhafan ayaa badanaa suurtogal ah. Tusaale ahaan, kaarboonka iyo oksijiinta waxay samayn karaan isku-dhafka CO iyo CO 2 . Maadaama ay kuwani yihiin walxo kala duwan oo leh hanti kala duwan, labaduba ma yeelan karaan magac isku mid ah (labadaba lama magacaabi karo karbon oksaydh). Si aan wax uga qabanno xaaladdan, waxaan isticmaalnaa hab magac-bixineed oo la mid ah kan loo isticmaalo isku-dhafka ionic, laakiin leh horgaleyaal lagu daray si loo qeexo tirada atamka ee walx kasta. Magaca curiyaha macdan badan (kan bidixda ka fog iyo/ama hoose ee miiska xilliyeedka) ayaa marka hore ah, oo uu ku xigo magaca curiyaha aan birta ahayn (mid ka fog dhinaca midig iyo/ama sare) oo uu ku dhammaanayo loo beddelay daba-dhilif – ide . Tirada atamka ee shay kasta waxa lagu tilmaamay horgalayaasha Giriigga ee lagu muujiyey [link].

Horgalayaasha magac-u-yaal
Tirada Horgale Tirada Horgale
1 (mararka qaar waa laga tago) hal- 6 hexa-
2 di- 7 hepta-
3 saddex- 8 octa-
4 tetra- 9 nona-
5 Penta- 10 deca-

Marka hal atamka ka mid ah curiyaha kowaad uu jiro, horgalayaasha mono – badanaa waa laga tirtiraa qaybtaas. Sidaa darteed, CO waxaa lagu magacaabaa carbon monoxide, CO 2 waxaa loo yaqaannaa carbon dioxide. Marka ay laba shaqal isku dhow yihiin, horgalaha Giriigga ayaa badanaa la tuuraa. Tusaalooyinka kale qaarkood ayaa lagu muujiyay [link].

Magacyada Qaybaha Unugyada Molecular oo ka kooban laba walxood
Isku dhafka Magaca Isku dhafka Magaca
SO 2 sulfur dioxide BCl 3 boron trichloride
SO 3 sulfur trioxide SF 6 sulfur hexafluoride
Maya 2 nitrogen dioxide PF 5 fosfooraska pentafluoride
N 2 O 4 tetroxide dinitrogen P 4 O 10 tetraphosphorus decaoxide
N 2 O 5 Dinitrogen pentoxide HADDII 7 iodine heptafluoride

Waxaa jira dhowr magac oo caan ah oo aad la kulmi doonto markaad sii wadato barashadaada kimistariga. Tusaale ahaan, inkasta oo MAYA inta badan loogu yeero nitric oxide, magaceeda saxda ah waa nitrogen monoxide. Sidoo kale, N 2 O waxaa loo yaqaanaa nitrous oxide inkasta oo xeerarkeennu ay qeexi doonaan magaca dinitrogen monoxide. (Iyo H 2 O inta badan waxaa loogu yeeraa biyo, ma aha dihydrogen monoxide.) Waa inaad xasuusataa magacyada guud ee iskudhisyada markaad la kulanto. Magacaabidda Isku -dhafka Isku-dhafka ah Magacaabista isku-dhafkan
soo socda: (a) SF 6 (b) N 2 O 3 (c) Cl 2 O 7 (d) P 4 O 6 Xalka
Sababtoo ah iskudhisyadani waxay ka kooban yihiin oo keliya kuwa aan biraha ahayn, waxaan isticmaalnaa horgalayaasha si aan u qeexno tirada atamka ee walx kasta: (a) sulfur hexafluoride (b) Dinitrogen trioxide (c) dichlorine heptoxide (d) tetraphosphorus hexoxide Hubi Waxbarashadaada
Qor qaababka isku-dhafkan soo socda: (a) fosfooraska pentachloride (b) Dinitrogen monoxide (c) iodine heptafluoride (d) kaarboon tetrachloride Jawaab: (a) PCl 5 ; (b) N 2 O; (c) HADDII 7 ; (d) CCl 4  Mareegaha soo socdaa waxa uu bixiyaa ku celcelinta magacaabista xeryahooda kiimikada iyo qorista qaaciidooyinka kiimikada. Waxaad dooran kartaa binary, polyatomic, and variable charge ionic compounds, iyo sidoo kale xeryahooda molecular.

Asiidhyada binary

Qaar ka mid ah xeryahooda ay ku jiraan hydrogen waa xubno ka tirsan fasalka muhiimka ah ee walxaha loo yaqaan acids. Kiimikada xeryahooda ayaa si faahfaahsan loogu baadhayaa cutubyada dambe ee qoraalkan, laakiin hadda, waxa ku filnaan doona in la ogaado in asiidh badan ay sii daayaan ions hydrogen, H + , marka lagu milmo biyaha. Si loo tilmaamo hantidan gaarka ah ee kiimikaad, isku dhafka biyaha leh aashitada ayaa la bixiyaa magac laga soo qaatay magaca xarunta. Haddii xaruntu ay tahay binary acid (oo ka kooban hydrogen iyo hal curiye kale oo aan bir ahayn):

  1. Erayga “hydrogen” waxa loo bedelay horgalaha hydro-
  2. Magaca curiyaha kale ee aan biraha ahayn waxa wax laga beddelaa iyadoo lagu darayo daba-galka – ic
  3. Erayga “asiidh” waxa lagu daraa sida kelmad labaad

Tusaale ahaan, marka gaaska HCl (hydrogen chloride) lagu milmo biyaha, xalka waxaa loo yaqaan hydrochloric acid . Dhowr tusaale oo kale oo magac-u-dhigis ah ayaa lagu muujiyey [link].

Magacyada Asiidhyada Fudud
Magaca Gaas Magaca Aashitada
HF ( g ), hydrogen fluoride HF ( aq ), hydrofluoric acid
HCl ( g ), hydrogen chloride HCl ( aq ), hydrochloric acid
HBr ( g ), hydrogen bromide HBr ( aq ), hydrobromic acid
HI ( g ), hydrogen iodide HI ( aq ), hydroiodic acid
H 2 S ( g ), hydrogen sulfide H 2 S ( aq ), hydrosulfuric acid

Oxyacids

Iskudhisyo badan oo ka kooban saddex ama in ka badan (sida xeryahooda organic ama isku xidhka isku xidhka) ayaa hoos imanaya xeerar magac-u-dhigis gaar ah oo aad hadhow baran doonto. Si kastaba ha ahaatee, waxaan si kooban uga hadli doonaa isku-dhisyada muhiimka ah ee loo yaqaan ‘oxyacids’, xeryahooda ay ku jiraan hydrogen, oxygen, iyo ugu yaraan hal walxood oo kale, waxayna ku xiran yihiin si ay u siiyaan sifooyinka acidic ee xarunta (waxaad baran doontaa faahfaahinta tan. cutubka dambe). Oxyacids-yada caadiga ah waxay ka kooban yihiin hydrogen oo lagu daray polyatomic, ion ka kooban ogsijiin. Si loo magacaabo oxides:

  1. Iska ilaali “hydrogen”
  2. Ku bilow magaca xididka anion
  3. Ku beddel – ku cunic , ama – ku beddelous
  4. Ku dar “asiidh”

Tusaale ahaan, tixgeli H 2 CO 3 (taas oo laga yaabo inaad isku daydo inaad wacdo “hydrogen carbonate”). Si tan si sax ah loogu magacaabo, “hydrogen” waa laga saaray; Cunista karbonat-ka waxaa lagu beddelaa – ic ; iyo aashitada ayaa lagu daray-sidaa darteed magaceedu waa carbonic acid. Tusaalooyinka kale waxaa lagu bixiyaa [link]. Waxa jira waxyaabo ka reebban habka guud ee magac bixinta (tusaale, H 2 SO 4 waxa loo yaqaan sulfuric acid, ma aha sulfic acid, iyo H 2 SO 3 waa sulfurous, maaha sulfous, acid).

Magacyada Oxyacids-ka Caadiga ah
Formula Magaca Anion Magaca Asiidhka
HC 2 H 3 O 2 acetate acetic acid
HNO 3 Nitrate nitric acid
HNO 2 nitrit nitrous acid
HClO 4 perchlorate perchloric acid
H 2 CO 3 karbonhaydrayt kaarboon acid
H 2 SO 4 sulfate sulfuric acid
H 2 SO 3 sulfite sulfurous acid
H 3 PO4 _ fosfooraska fosfooraska acid

Fikradaha Muhiimka ah iyo Kooban

Chemists waxay isticmaalaan qawaaniinta magac-u-dhigista si ay si cad ugu magacaabaan isku-dhisyada. Xeryahooda Ionic iyo molecular waxaa lagu magacaabaa iyadoo la adeegsanayo habab kala duwan. Xeryahooda binary ionic waxay caadi ahaan ka kooban yihiin bir iyo bir aan bir ahayn. Magaca birta ayaa marka hore la qorayaa, oo ay ku xigto magaca birta aan birta ahayn iyada oo dhamaadkeeda loo beddelay – ide . Tusaale ahaan, K 2 O waxa loo yaqaan potassium oxide. Haddii birtu ay samayn karto ions oo leh kharashyo kala duwan, nambarka Roomaanka ee qawlka ayaa raacaya magaca birta si loo caddeeyo kharashkeeda. Sidaa darteed, FeCl 2 waa birta (II) chloride iyo FeCl 3 waa birta (III) chloride. Iskudhisyada qaar waxa ku jira ion polyatomic; Magacyada ion polyatomic-ga caadiga ah waa in la xafido. Iskudhisyada molecular waxay samayn karaan iskudhisyo leh saamiyo kala duwan oo canasirtooda ah, sidaa awgeed horgalayaasha waxaa loo isticmaalaa in lagu qeexo tirooyinka atamka ee shay kasta oo ku jira molecule xarunta. Tusaalooyinka waxaa ka mid ah SF 6 , sulfur hexafluoride, iyo N 2 O 4 , dinitrogen tetroxide. Asiidhyadu waa qayb muhiim ah oo ka kooban iskudhisyo ka kooban hydrogen oo leh xeerar magacyo gaar ah. Asiidhyada binary-ga waxa lagu magacaabay horgalayaasha hydro- , beddelaadda- ide dabagaagga -ic , oo ku daray “asiidh;” HCl waa hydrochloric acid. Oxyacids waxaa lagu magacaabaa iyadoo la beddelo dhammaadka anion-ka (- la cunayic iyo – teeous ), oo lagu daro “asiidh;” H 2 CO 3 waa carbonic acid.

Chemistry Dhamaadka Cutubka Layliyada

Magacaw waxyaalahan soo socda: (a) CsCl (b) BaO (c) K 2 S (d) BeCl 2 (e) HBr (f) AlF 3 (a) cesium chloride; (b) barium oxide; (c) potassium sulfide; (d) chloride beryllium; (e) hydrogen bromide; (f) aluminium fluoride Magacaw waxyaalahan soo socda: (a) NAF (b) Rb 2 O (c) BCl 3 (d) H 2 Se (e) P 4 O 6 (f) ICl 3 Qor qaacidooyinka isku-dhafkan soo socda: (a) rubidium bromide (b) magnesium selenide (c) sodium oxide (d) kalsiyum chloride (e) hydrogen fluoride (f) gallium fosfide (g) aluminium bromide (h) ammonium sulfate (a) RbBr; (b) MgSe; (c) Na 2 O; (d) CaCl 2 ; (e) HF; (f) GaP; (g) AlBr 3 ; (h) (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 Qor qaacidooyinka isku-dhafkan soo socda: (a) lithium carbonate (b) sodium perchlorate (c) barium hydroxide (d) ammonium carbonate (e) sulfuric acid (f) calcium acetate (g) magnesium phosphate (h) sodium sulfite Qor qaacidooyinka isku-dhafkan soo socda: (a) koloriin dioxide (b) tetraoxide dinitrogen (c) phosphide potassium (d) qalin (I) sulfide (e) nitride aluminium (f) Silicon dioxide (a) ClO 2 ; (b) N 2 O 4 ; (c) K 3 P; (d) Ag 2 S; (e) AlN; (f) SiO 2 Qor qaacidooyinka isku-dhafkan soo socda: (a) barium chloride (b) magnesium nitride (c) sulfur dioxide (d) trichloride nitrogen (e) Dinitrogen trioxide (f) qasacad (IV) koloriin Mid kasta oo ka mid ah xeryahooda soo socda ayaa ka kooban bir soo bandhigi karta in ka badan hal xajmi ionic. Magacaabi waxyaalahan: (a) Cr 2 O 3 (b) FeCl 2 (c) Croos 3 (d) TiCl 4 (e) CoO (f) MoS 2 (a) chromium (III) oksaydh; (b) Bir (II) koloriin; (c) chromium (VI) oxide; (d) titanium (IV) chloride; (e) Kobalt (II) oksaydh; (f) molybdenum (IV) sulfide Mid kasta oo ka mid ah xeryahooda soo socda ayaa ka kooban bir soo bandhigi karta in ka badan hal xajmi ionic. Magacaabi waxyaalahan: (a) NiCO 3 (b) MOO 3 (c) Co (MAYA 3 ) 2 (d) V 2 O 5 (e) MnO 2 (f) Fe 2 O 3 Iskudhisyada ionic ee soo socda ayaa laga helaa alaabta guriga ee caadiga ah. Qor qaacidooyinka xarun kasta: (a) phosphate potassium (b) naxaas (II) sulfate (c) kalsiyum chloride (d) titanium (IV) dioxide (e) ammonium nitrate (f) sodium bisulfate (magaca guud ee sodium hydrogen sulfate) (a) K 3 PO 4 ; (b) CuSO 4 ; (c) CaCl 2 ; (d) TiO 2 ; (e) NH 4 NO 3 ; (f) NaHSO 4 Iskudhisyada ionic ee soo socda ayaa laga helaa alaabta guriga ee caadiga ah. Magacaw mid kasta oo ka mid ah isku-dhafka: (a) Ca (H 2 PO 4 ) 2 (b) FeSO 4 (c) CaCO 3 (d) MgO (e) NaNO 2 (f) KI Waa maxay magacyada IUPAC ee ka kooban kuwan soo socda? (a) oksijiinta manganese (b) chloride meerkurus (Hg 2 Cl 2 ) (c) Nitrate ferric [Fe (NO 3 ) 3 ] (d) titanium tetrachloride (e) koobabka bromide (CuBr 2 ) (a) manganese (IV) oxide; (b) meerkuri (I) chloride; (c) birta (III) nitrate; (d) titanium (IV) chloride; (e) naxaas (II) bromide

Qaamuuska

binary acid
Iskudhis ka kooban hydrogen iyo hal curiye kale, oo ku xidhan hab siinaya sifooyinka acidic ee xarunta (awoodda lagu sii daayo H + ions marka lagu milmo biyaha)
dhismaha binary
xarun ka kooban laba walxood oo kala duwan.
magac-u-dhigid
nidaamka xeerarka magacaabidda shayada xiisaha
oxide
Iskudhis ka kooban hydrogen, ogsijiin, iyo hal walxood oo kale, oo ku xidhan hab siiya sifooyinka acidic ee xarunta (awoodda lagu sii daayo H + ions marka lagu milmo biyaha)


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